South Sudan is centered with inter-ethnic and armed conflicts, they explain human rights abuses and failed rule of law, due to regime’s ruthless control, symbols of army’s tanks and rule with iron fist punishing anyone harshly without mercies and technicalities granting. Thus, violence dominated this country, used to pursue gun-rule where armed conflicts continue rising; at least 70 cases/ 2009 to civil war/2013 with death toll increasing, at least 1,000/2006 to >20,000/2013. This book considers human rights as protective against arbitrary of the state to do with a country in its darkest days, where human rights are constrained by state’s anarchy. It analyses rule of law as bedrock for building a structure of ordered liberty and progress in civil society, provides foundation for economic development, protection of human rights and promote basic dignity. The analysis examines democracy, federalism, institutional reforms and accountability as effective mechanisms for exit from failed rule of law. This would guide the need to embark on critical issues like effective management, capacity building, maintaining law and order, provision of public goods, fair and impartial political platform.